COVER AND QUIZ . . . TO STUDY OUTLINES
Once an outline has been produced, it becomes an effective means to self-quiz. Middle school students readily see the advantage of this logical method of studying / memorizing.
Of course, students also discover that the act of creating an outline (which involves both the analysis of reading material and the synthesis of a product) is itself a powerful strategy for committing information to memory.
Use the links below to view evidence of the importance of keeping the chosen symbols directly beneath the corresponding topics / subtopics. When properly constructed, a student notices that there are subtopics (indicated by "dots"), and then asks themself, "Do I know these items?" Of course, the same strategy is used to study the next level of subtopics.
BTW Parents will be impressed that a middle school science teacher incorporates the teaching of a skill that enhances their child's learning of all subjects.